ChadChad is a country in the middle of northern Africa.

Chad, (French: Tchad), or Republic of Chad, a country in north-central Africa. It is bounded by Libya, Sudan, the Central African Republic, Cameroon, Nigeria, and Niger. Its area is about 496,000 square miles (1,284,000 km 2 ).

Northern Chad lies within the Sahara and is primarily a region of sandy plains and scattered dunes, with some mountains and uplands. In the Tibesti, a mountainous area in the north, is 11,204-foot (3,415-m) Emi Koussi, the country's highest peak. South of the Sahara, in a region called the Sahel, the desert gradually gives way to steppes and dry grasslands dotted by thorny trees. Wooded savannas cover most of southern Chad. All of Chad's permanent rivers are in the south, including the Chari and Logone, which flow northward into Lake Chad, a large freshwater lake.

Chad's climate varies from extremely hot and arid in the Sahara to hot and seasonally humid in the south. Average temperatures at N'Djamena range from 75° F. (24° C.) in January to 91° F. (33° C.) in April and May. Rainfall comes mainly between June and October. The desert receives rare showers while the extreme south receives as much as 50 inches (1,270 mm) annually.

In the north the people of Chad are mostly Arabs and people of mixed Arab and Negroid ancestry. In the south they are mainly Negroid. N'Djamena is the capital and largest city. French is the official language, but Arabic and indigenous languages are also used. Islam and animism are the principal religions. Primary and secondary education is provided; however, facilities are limited and attendance is low. There is a university in N'Djamena. Facts in brief about Chad


Chad is an agricultural country and one of the poorest nations on earth. A generally hostile environment, few natural resources, droughts, and civil war have long hampered development. Subsistence farming and livestock herding, mostly by nomads, support the vast majority of the people. Basic food crops include millet, sorghum, cassava, yams, and peanuts. Cotton, grown in the south, is by far the main cash crop and export. Cattle, sheep, and goats make up most of the livestock. Live cattle and meat are significant exports. Fishing is carried on in the larger rivers and in Lake Chad.

Chad has little manufacturing other than the processing of agricultural products and the making of textiles, beverages, and some household items. Sodium carbonate is the only mineral produced. Land transportation is poorly developed; the country has no railways and few all-weather roads. There is an international airport at N'Djamena.

Chad's basic currency unit is the CFA franc.


The president is elected by the people to a five-year term. Governmental operations are  overseen by the Council of Minsters. Laws are created by the National Assembly.