Johannesburg, South Africa, a city in Gauteng province. Greater Johannesburg, which includes Soweto, Randburg, Sandton, and Roodepoort, forms South Africa's most populous metropolitan area. Johannesburg is often called the Golden City for its gold mines. It is in northeastern South Africa at an elevation of 5,750 feet (1,750 m) in the Witwatersrand, or Rand, the chief gold-mining, industrial, and urban area in the nation. The climate is pleasant, with mild temperatures, moderate rainfall, and generally clear skies.

Johannesburg is headquarters for many mining, banking, manufacturing, and commercial concerns and is the home of a large stock exchange. Metallurgy, metalworking, diamond cutting, food processing, printing, and the manufacturing of chemicals, machinery, and textiles are among the many industries. Several government agencies and consular offices are located in the city. Excellent roads, railways, and air service link Johannesburg with other major South African cities. The city's airport,or Tambo International Airport (formerly Johannesburg International Airport), handles domestic and international flights.

The University of Witwatersrand and the Rand Afrikaans University are in Johannesburg. The Africana Museum has historical and ethnological exhibits. A geological museum, an astronomical observatory, an art gallery, and a zoo are in or near the city.

Johannesburg was founded as a mining camp when gold was discovered in 1886. In 1900, during the Boer War, it was occupied by the British.

Population: 1,480,530.