Pretoria, South Africa, a city in Gauteng Province and the administrative capital of the nation. Pretoria is in northern South Africa, about 30 miles (48 km) north-northeast of Johannesburg. Government offices and diplomatic missions are here. The University of Pretoria was founded in 1930. Pretoria's economy is based mainly on government jobs but some industry exists, including steelmaking.

The city was founded in 1855 and named for Andries Pretorius, a Boer leader. It became capital of the Transvaal (South African) Republic in 1860. Discovery of gold in the area attracted English prospectors, and conflicts between Boers and the English led to the Boer War in 1899. The city was taken by the British in 1900. It was made capital of the self-governing state of Transvaal in 1907, and administrative capital of the nation in 1910. Pretoria is under the administration of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality.

Population: 1,985,995.