Togo, or Republic of Togo, a country in western Africa. It extends 370 miles (595 km) northward from the Gulf of Guinea and is nowhere more than 100 miles (160 km) wide. Bordering countries are Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Benin. Togo's area is about 21,600 square miles (56,000 km 2 ). The coast is straight and sandy, with a number of lagoons behind it. Southern Togo is a low plain, drained principally by the Mono River and its branches. To the north rises a low plateau crossed by rounded mountains that trend roughly northeast-southwest. The highest elevation, 3,235 feet (986 m), is in the Togo Mountains. In the far north is low, rolling terrain, drained by the Oti River. Virtually all of Togo is covered by savannas.The climate is tropical, with temperatures that average close to 80° F. (27° C.) throughout the year. Precipitation comes mainly from April through October and varies from about 30 to 60 inches (760 to 1,520 mm) a year, depending on location.
Railways radiate from Lomé, extending inland and along the coast. The road system is fairly extensive, but the vast majority of the roads are unpaved. Lomé is the chief seaport and air terminal.
Lomé is the capital and largest city of Togo. Togo has more than 40 African languages and dialects. The languages used in the primary and secondary schools are Ewe and Kabiye; French is taught as a second language. The Ewe and Mina peoples predominate in the south; Kabre and Kotokoli in the north. About half the people are animists, 35 per cent Christians, and 15 per cent Muslims. Primary education begins at age six and lasts six years. Secondary education lasts seven years. There is a university at Lomé. About 40 per cent of the people are literate.
Small family-type farms that grow subsistence crops are the basis of Togo's economy. In some areas, coffee, cacao, and cotton are grown as cash crops, mainly for export. Phosphates, which are mined in the southeastern part of Togo, usually provide the greatest share of export earnings. Manufacturing accounts for only a small share of the country's total domestic earnings. Togo is one of the region's leading trade centers.
Under the constitution of 1993, Togo is a republic headed by an elected president, who serves a five-year term. The legislature is called the National Assembly, which consists of 81 members. They are elected by the people for five-year terms.