Agra, India, a city in the state of Uttar Pradesh. Agra is on the Yamuna River, a tributary of the Ganges River, about 115 miles (185 km) south-southeast of New Delhi. Products include handicraft items and cotton and silk textiles. Agra is the commercial and transportation center for the surrounding region. Agra University (founded in 1927) is here.
The city is the site of several buildings of the Hindu-Islamic style of architecture erected during the Mogul period of Indian history (1527–1707). The Taj Mahal, the tomb built in the 17th century by Shah Jahan in honor of his wife, is one of the outstanding buildings in the world. The huge, crescent-shaped Fort of Agra was built in the 16th century by Akbar. Within its walls are the palace of Akbar; the Pearl Mosque (1646), built by Shah Jahan; and Itimad-ud-Daulah's tomb (1626), built by Shah Jahangir's wife.
Agra, an ancient city, has an obscure early history. In the mid-15th century the Lodi king Sikander made it his capital. The city became important after 1483 as the residence of the Mogul rulers of India. In 1639 Shah Jahan made Delhi his capital, and Agra declined in importance. It was the capital of the British North-Western Province (modern Uttar Pradesh) from 1835 to 1862.