Bukhara, or Bokhara, Uzbekistan, a city on the Zeravshan River near the border with Turkmenistan. The city is of ancient origin and was the center of several historic kingdoms. It was an important stop on several caravan routes, including the Silk Road, which carried trade between Europe and China. Bukhara fell to the Muslims in the seventh century. In 892 it came under the rule of the Persian Samanids, who made it their capital and a center of culture. The physician-philosopher Avicenna was a native of the region and received his education at the library of Bukhara.

In the 13th and early 14th centuries, Bukhara was destroyed three times by the Mongols. In the 1500's, the Uzbek Turks made the city their capital. Bukhara Khanate was conquered by Russia in 1868.

Population: 220,000.