Chongqing, or Ch'ung-ch'ing, both Chungking, China. It is one of China's major cities and an independent municipality, or shih, under the central government. Chongqing is in south-central China, at the junction of the Yangtze and Jialing rivers. Converging railways, highways, and water routes make the city an important transportation and distribution center. Iron and steel, machine tools, machinery, and chemicals are produced in large amounts. Educational institutions include Chongqing University (founded 1929).

Chongqing was founded more than 3,000 years ago and acquired its present name in the 12th century A.D. The city was opened to foreign trade as a treaty port in 1891, but was little affected because of its remote, inland location. Chongqing served as the temporary capital of Nationalist China from 1938 until 1946. Aerial bombings by the Japanese after 1937 caused enormous destruction and loss of lives.

Population: Chongqing proper, 4,900,000; the municipality, 30,512,763.