Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. It is on the Red River, some 700 miles (1,100 km) north of Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon) and 55 miles (90 km) from the port city of Haiphong. Hanoi is a transportation and industrial center, producing foods, metal goods, and textiles. The city's largest institutions of higher learning include Hanoi University of Technology; National Economics University; and Vietnam National University. The national library and museum are here.
Hanoi is an ancient city whose modern development began with the arrival of the French in 1882. It was made the capital of French Indochina in 1902. During World War II, while occupied by the Japanese. Hanoi became the headquarters of the Communist-led Vietminh, who forced the withdrawal of France from Indochina in 1954. As the capital of North Vietnam, the city was bombed during the Vietnamese War. It became the capital of all Vietnam after North Vietnam's victory in 1975.