Jinan, also Tsinan or Chi-nan, China, the capitol of Shandong province. It lies near the Huang He, about 230 miles (370 km) south of Beijing. Jinan is a major railway and highway junction on the North China Plain. They city is noted for its many natural springs. Since the Communists gained control of China in 1949, Jinan has developed rapidly as an industrial center, producing machinery, electrical equipment, fertilizer, and chemicals. Shandong University is here.
Jinan's recorded history dates back more than 3,000 years. The city has been Shandong's capital since the province's establishment during the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644). In 1906, when still a walled city, Jinan was opened to foreign trade, and a European settlement was made. The Japanese occupied the city during 1937–45.