Mandalay, Burma, the nation's second largest city. It is on the Irrawaddy River in north-central Burma, some 350 miles (560 km) north of Rangoon, the national capital. Mandalay is a hub of rail, road, air, and river transportation. Food processing, textile making, and artistic metalworking are among the city's industries. Mandalay has numerous Buddhist temples, pagodas, and monasteries. The University of Mandalay, founded in 1964, is the chief educational institution.
Mandalay was founded in 1857 to replace Amarapura as the Burmese capital. It remained the capital until 1885, when British troops took the city, completing their conquest of Burma. Mandalay sustained heavy damage during World War II, especially in 1945 during the fighting in which Britain regained it from Japan.