Mumbai, India, formerly known as Bombay, the nation's largest city and the capital of Maharashtra state. It lies at the tip of a peninsula jutting into the Arabian Sea. Hot, humid weather prevails during most of the year. Mumbai has a diverse population, representing numerous ethnic groups. The city has a number of modern high-rise buildings, but also has vast areas of slums.

Mumbai is one of India's leading manufacturing cities, producing textiles, especially cottons; motor vehicles; chemicals; machinery; and processed foods. Printing and the making of motion pictures are also important activities. With major banks and the largest stock exchange in India, Mumbai is also a leading financial and commercial center. The city's busy port handles much of India's foreign trade.

Among the many educational institutions are the University of Mumbai, founded in 1857 as the University of Bombay, and the Indian Institute of Technology at Mumbai, founded in 1958. The Prince of Wales Museum features art, archeological, and natural-history exhibits. The Bhabha Atomic Research Center, the Tata Institute, and the Haffkine Institute are notable scientific research centers.

Mumbai's site has been occupied at various times since antiquity. The city was known as Mumbai until sometime in the 1600's, after the Portuguese gave it to King Charles II of Britain. The present city was founded in the 1660's as a trading and military post by the British and renamed Bombay. From 1672 until 1858 the city was the Indian headquarters of the East India Company. Shipping and the manufacturing of cotton textiles caused rapid development under the British in the 19th century. The population grew considerably in the 20th century and Mumbai became one of the most densely settled cities in the world. The city was officially renamed Mumbai in 1995.

Population (Greater Mumbai): 12,596,243.