Nagasaki, Japan, the capital of Nagasaki prefecture. It is on Nagasaki Bay on the west coast of Kyushu, southernmost of the main Japanese islands. Nagasaki, formerly a major coaling station and port of entry, is no longer a chief port. Shipbuilding is the main industry, and one of Japan's largest shipyards is here.

Nagasaki was the first Japanese port to handle European trade. The Portuguese arrived in the middle of the 16th century, followed in a few years by the Dutch—who managed to establish themselves as the only European traders in Japan for almost two centuries. In 1858, after a visit by Commodore Perry, Nagasaki and two other ports were opened to trade with other European powers and with the United States.

Nagasaki was the target for the second atomic bomb used in World War II. On August 9, 1945, a United States B-29 aircraft released the bomb, which killed more than 40,000 persons and injured thousands more. One-third of the city was destroyed. Damaged parts of the city have since been rebuilt.

Population: 423,163.