Nanchang, China, the capital and most populous city of Jiangxi province. It lies on the Gan River near Poyang Lake, about 370 miles (595 km) southwest of Shanghai. Nanchang is the most industrialized city in the province, producing tires, trucks, tractors, textiles, machine tools, and processed foods. The surrounding countryside is one of the richest rice-producing areas in China. Nanchang is also the province's railway, road, and air center and the leading Gan River port. Institutions of higher learning include Nanchang University and Jiangxi Medical College.
Nanchang, which probably dates from the third century B.C., was one of the early centers of Communist revolt in China during the late 1920's. It was occupied by the Japanese during 1939-45 and taken by the Communists in 1949.