New Delhi, India, the national capital. It is on the west bank of the Yamuna River in the union territory of Delhi in northern India. The old city of Delhi is immediately to the north. Government is the primary activity in New Delhi, which is a planned city built as India's capital in the early 20th century. It is served by excellent road and railway systems and an international airport.
New Delhi is laid out in a series of triangles, formed by broad, tree-lined avenues radiating from numerous circles and squares. Large parks throughout the city give it a garden-like atmosphere. The principal thoroughfare is the Rajpath, which is part of a great central mall that extends two miles (3 km) from the main government buildings to the India Gate, a memorial to Indian soldiers who died in World War I.
The architecture of New Delhi is primarily a mixture of Indian and European styles. Among the most prominent buildings are the President's House, the Central Secretariat, Parliament House, the Hindu temple of Lakshmi Narayan, and embassies in the Diplomatic Enclave. Historic structures in the city include a 16th-century fort, an astronomical observatory built about 1725, and several elaborate Mogul tombs.
New Delhi is a major Indian cultural center, with many outstanding museums and libraries. Especially notable are the National Museum, the National Archives, and museums dedicated to Mohandas K. Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru. Educational institutions include Jawaharlal Nehru University and the University of Delhi Medical College. The National Physical Laboratory is the largest of the city's many research institutes.