Rajputana, a region in northwest India, bordering on Pakistan and roughly equivalent to Rajasthan state. Rajputana covers about 135,000 square miles (350,000 km2).

The Aravalli mountains cross the region from northeast to southwest. Northwest of the range is the Thar Desert, the drier parts of which are inhabited largely by a few nomadic herders. Southeast Rajputana, watered by the Chambal and Banas rivers, is more fertile, producing mainly grains and cotton. In the farming area are villages noted for their handiworks of brass, ivory, and cloth. A scarcity of raw materials allows little heavy industry in Rajputana, but there are cotton gins, textile mills, and factories producing cement, bone meal, and wool, mica, and tobacco products.

Rajputana took its name, meaning "country of the Rajputs," from the Hindu tribes that rose to power here in the seventh century. After resisting Muslim attacks for many centuries, the Rajputs came under the control of Akbar's Moguls in the 16th century and Maratha tribes in the 18th. After 1810 the British made protective treaties with the Rajput princes, forced the Mara-thas to cede control, and made Rajputana a political division governed by a British resident. In 1991 the population of Rajasthan was 44,005,990. Jaipur, the capital of Rajasthan, is the largest city.