Shenyang, (Manchu: Mukden,), China, the capital of Liaoning province. It is in southern Manchuria on the Hun River, 400 miles (640 km) east-northeast of Beijing, the national capital. Shenyang is a major railway and road junction. Located near sources of steel, iron, coal, and other industrial materials, it is one of China's chief industrial centers. Shenyang's many factories produce heavy machinery, machine tools, and other products. Its public library and museum are among the largest in China. Liaoning University is in Shenyang.
Shenyang was a Chinese settlement for centuries before the Manchus made it their capital (1625–44). Industrialization began in about 1900, while Manchuria was under Russian dominance. In 1905, during the Russo-Japanese War, Japan won a major battle at Shenyang. In 1931 Japan claimed that Manchurian troops had blown up a section of a Japanese-owned railway near the city and used the “Mukden Incident” as a pretext to seize the city and the rest of Manchuria. The Chinese Nationalists gained control of Shenyang after World War II but lost the city to Communist forces in 1948.