Yerevan, or Erivan, the capital and largest city of Armenia. It lies on the Razdan River, about 10 miles (16 km) from the Turkish border. Yerevan is a major commercial and industrial center, noted for its engineering, chemical, and metallurgical industries. Food processing, textile milling, and printing are also important. The city is the seat of the Armenian Academy of Sciences and Yerevan State University.

A fortress was built on the site of Yerevan as early as the eighth century B.C., but little is known of the city before 607 A.D., when it was first mentioned in Armenian chronicles. From the 7th through the 18th century Yerevan was ruled at various times by Arabs, Mongols, Persians, and Turks. It came under Russian control in 1827. The city was the capital of an independent Armenia between 1917 and 1920. It became the capital of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1936. In 1991, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Yerevan once again became the capital of an independent Armenia.

Population: 1,215,000.