Thar (or Great Indian)Desert, a desert in India and Pakistan. It is about 400 miles (640 km) long and up to 300 miles (480 km) wide, and is bounded roughly by the Indus River valley, the Punjab plains, the Aravalli Range, and the Rann (swamp) of Kutch. Much of the Thar is made up of sand, dunes, and wind-eroded rock. Vegetation, where present, is limited to stunted shrubs and coarse grasses.
Population in the Thar is concentrated in the east, where rainfall is sufficient to support dry farming. Irrigation is possible only in a few places, mainly along the Luni River and the Rajasthan Canal. Several cities, including Jodhpur and Bikaner, are here. The few inhabitants of the interior are largely nomadic herders.