Ural Mountains, a range in Russia extending southward from the Kara Sea for about 1,500 miles (2,400 km). The range is often regarded as the boundary between Europe and Asia. The Urals are not high mountains, and in many areas are little more than low, rounded hills—particularly in the central section, where elevations are generally less than 2,450 feet (750 m) above sea level. Only a few peaks in the northern and southern sections exceed 4,000 feet (1,200 m). Narodnaya, in the north, is the highest (6,214 feet [1,894 m]).

Few areas of the world equal the Urals in variety and amount of mineral deposits. Among major deposits are iron, copper, chromium, nickel, petroleum, aluminum, manganese, lead, zinc, magnesium, coal, asbestos, gold, silver, and platinum.

Since the 1930's the Urals have become a principal industrial region in Russia. During World War II many industries were moved eastward to the Urals, and after the war new industries were established. Among the many products are iron, steel, and other primary metals, chemicals, petroleum products, heavy machinery (including tractors and railway locomotives and cars), and machine tools.

From north to south the chief industrial cities are Perm, Nizhniy Tagil, Yekaterinburg, Chelyabinsk, Ufa, Magnitogorsk, and Orsk.