Newfoundland, officially Newfoundland and Labrador, the easternmost province of Canada. It is divided into two unequal parts—the island of Newfoundland in the Atlantic Ocean and Labrador on the mainland. The two areas were joined in 1949 to form Canada's 10th province.

Newfoundland is bordered by numerous arms of the Atlantic Ocean, including the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and is bounded inland by Quebec. The province's total area of 156,650 square miles (405,720 km 2) includes many small offshore islands. Just off the southern coast are the French islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon.

Newfoundland and Labrador in brief
General information
Entered the Dominion: March 31, 1949, the 10th province.
Provincial abbreviation: NL (postal).
Provincial capital: St. John's.
Provincial motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Seek Ye First the Kingdom of God).
Provincial song: "The Ode to Newfoundland." Words by Sir Cavendish Boyle; music by Sir Hubert Parry.
Flag and coat of arms: Newfoundland and Labrador's provincial flag was adopted in 1980. The blue section represents Newfoundland and Labrador's ties to the United Kingdom. The red and gold symbolize hope for the future, with the arrow pointing the way. The coat of arms was granted by King Charles I of England in 1637 and officially adopted as a provincial symbol in 1928. The shield has two lions and two unicorns representing the United Kingdom. The Indians symbolize Newfoundland and Labrador's first inhabitants.
Floral emblem: Pitcher plant.
Land and climate
Area: 156,649 sq. mi. (405,720 sq. km); the island of Newfoundland, 43,008 sq. mi. (111,390 sq. km); Labrador, 113,641 sq. mi. (294,330 sq. km).
Elevation: Highest--Mount Caubvick (called Mont d'Iberville in Quebec), 5,420 ft (1,652 m) above sea level. Lowest--sea level.
Coastline: The island of Newfoundland, 7,176 mi. (11,548 km). Labrador: 5,078 mi. (8,172 km).
Record high temperature: 100 degrees F. (38 degrees C) at Happy Valley-Goose Bay on July 4, 1944.
Record low temperature: -55 degrees F. (-48 degrees C) at Ashuanipi on Feb. 7, 1950.
Average July temperature: 59 degrees F. (14 degrees C).
Average January temperature: 19 degrees F. (-7 degrees C).
Average yearly precipitation: 44 in. (111 cm).
People
Population: 505,469 (2006 census).
Rank among the provinces: 9th.
Density: 3 persons per mi2 (1 per km2), provinces average 13 per mi2 (5 per km2).
Distribution: 58 percent urban, 42 percent rural.
Largest cities and towns: St. John's (100,646); Mount Pearl (24,671); Conception Bay South (21,966); Corner Brook (20,083); Grand Falls-Windsor (13,558); Paradise (12,584).
Economy
Chief products
Agriculture: chickens, eggs, milk, nursery products.
Forestry: fir, spruce.
Manufacturing: paper products, seafood products.
Mining: iron ore, petroleum.
Government
Provincial government
Premier: term of up to 4 years.
Members of the House of Assembly: 48; terms of up to 4 years.
Federal government
Members of the House of Commons: 7.
Senators: 6.
Sources of information
For information on tourism in Newfoundland and Labrador, write to: Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Tourism, Culture, and Recreation, P.O. Box 8730, St. John's, NL A1B 4K2. The Web site at http://www.newfoundlandlabrador.com also provides tourist information. For information about the economy and government of the province, write to: Communications and Consultation Branch, 10th Floor, East Block, Confederation Building, St. John’s, NL A1B 4J6. The government’s Web site at http://www.gov.nf.ca also provides information about the province.