Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada, the largest city in the province and the seat of St. John County. It is on the Bay of Fundy at the mouth of the St. John River and, with an ice-free harbor, is one of Canada's major ports. Shipping, ship repairing, oil refining, paper milling, food processing, and commercial fishing are the principal industries. Many tourists are attracted by the river's Reversing Falls.
Saint John is one of the oldest cities in Canada and has many historic buildings. They include Loyalist House, a restored home of the early 1800's; the Old Courthouse; and the New Brunswick Museum (1842), oldest museum in Canada. The Martello Tower, built during the War of 1812 to protect Saint John Harbor, is across the river in Lancaster.
Samuel de Champlain discovered the mouth of the St. John in 1604. It was the site of several French forts and trading posts between 1631 and 1758, when the British captured the area during the Seven Years' War. A settlement was established in 1762 by colonists from New England. In 1783 thousands of United Empire Loyalists—colonists who had been loyal to Great Britain during the American Revolution—moved here. During the 19th century, the city thrived as a shipbuilding and lumbering center.