Euboea (modern Greek: Éwoia, â'vyä), the largest Greek island after Crete. It is in the Aegean Sea off Greece's east coast, northeast of Athens. Euboea's area is about 1,410 square miles (3,650 km2). Together with the island of Skíros, it forms a prefecture of Greece. Most of Euboea is either hilly or mountainous. Agriculture, mining, and fishing are among the island's economic activities. Khalkís (Chalcis) is the capital, largest city, and chief port.
The island was independent until 506 B.C., when it was conquered by the Athenians. It was taken over by Philip II of Macedon in 338 B.C., and came under Roman rule in 191 B.C. The Venetians, who held it from 1204 to 1470, called it Negroponte (black bridge). The Turks ruled Euboea from 1470 to 1830, when the island was transferred to Greece.