Baden-Württemberg, a state in southwestern Germany. It is noted for the Black Forest and hot mineral springs, particularly at Baden-Baden and Wildbad. The state is bounded by other German states on the north, east, and northwest; on the south by Switzerland and Lake Constance. On the west it is separated from France by the Rhine River. The area is 13,804 square miles (35,752 km2).

Much of the state is hilly or mountainous. Feldberg (4,898 feet [1,493 m]), in the Black Forest, is the highest peak. Major rivers are the Rhine, Neckar, and Danube. Winters are long and there is much snow in the mountains.

Baden-Württemberg is a major industrial state with much of its manufacturing concentrated around Stuttgart, Karlsruhe, and Mannheim. Products include automobiles, precision and optical instruments, machinery, chemicals, and textiles. The Black Forest is noted for its handicrafts, especially cuckoo clocks. Farming is widespread; the chief crops are wine grapes, orchard fruits, grains, and vegetables. Other important economic activities include lumbering and tourism.

The population of Baden-Württemberg in 1993 was about 10,149,000. Stuttgart, with a population of 596,900, is the capital and largest city.

There are universities at Freiburg, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Mannheim, Stuttgart, Tübingen, and Ulm.


Southwestern Germany was for many years made up of small states ruled by dukes and counts. In 1806 Napoleon created the grand duchy of Baden out of a number of these small territories. At the same time, the grand duchy of Württemberg was made into a kingdom. The two states became part of the Confederation of the Rhine. Both joined the German Empire in 1871 and the Weimar Republic in 1919. After World War II, the states of Württemberg-Baden, Baden, and Württemberg-Hohenzollern were created under the supervision of French and American occupation authorities.

In 1951 the three states voted to merge. Baden-Württemberg remained under Allied control until West Germany was granted sovereignty in 1955.