Dalmatia, a region of Croatia. It extends some 200 miles (320 km) along the coast, between the Adriatic Sea and the Dinaric Alps. It is a narrow region with numerous peninsulas and islands. Dalmatia is known for its sunny, mild weather. Resorts are numerous and tourism is of major importance to the economy. Split, Zadar, Dubrovnik, and Sibenik are among the chief cities.
Settlement in Dalmatia dates from prehistoric time. Thracians, Illyrians, Phoenicians, and Greeks were among the earliest inhabitants. The region became a Roman province about 100 B.C. and later came under the control of the Croats and then the Venetians. In 1797 Dalmatia passed to Austria and in 1918 it became part of the newly created Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (Yugoslavia). Civil war broke out in Yugoslavia in 1991. In 1992 Croatia became independent. Parts of northern Dalmatia were held by rebel Serbs during 1992–95.