Dublin (Gaelic: Baile Átha Cliath), Republic of Ireland, the country's capital and largest city, and the seat of County Dublin. It lies on Ireland's east coast, facing Dublin Bay. The city is divided into two nearly equal parts by the Liffey River, which flows through the heart of Dublin and is crossed by several bridges. Northward from the largest bridge runs O'Connell Street, the main thoroughfare and the scene of heavy fighting during uprisings against the British in 1916 and 1921.
Much of Ireland's domestic and foreign trade is centered in Dublin, as are many manufacturing industries. Dublin is the hub of the country's transportation system and has a large international airport.
Dublin is Ireland's center of art, literature, and learning. The University of Dublin (Trinity College), founded in 1591 by Queen Elizabeth I, and the National University of Ireland, created in 1909, are here. Also in Dublin are the National Museum, the Irish Museum of Modern Art, and the National Gallery of Art. The Abbey Theatre is the center of Irish dramatic art. Famous literary figures who lived in Dublin include Jonathan Swift, George Bernard Shaw, Thomas Moore, Oscar Wilde, William Butler Yeats, and James Joyce. The Dublin Writers Museum has exhibits devoted to the city's literary heritage.
Many of Dublin's buildings date to the 18th century. Dublin Castle, former home of British viceroys, now houses government offices. Leinster House is the seat of the Irish parliament. The restored Custom House is a city block in size. The Four Courts, or Hall of Justice, also restored, is one of the most striking buildings in Ireland.
There are two Anglican cathedrals in Dublin. Holy Trinity, or Christ Church, founded in 1038, is the cathedral of the local diocese. Parts of the present church were built in 1172 by the Anglo-Norman leader Strongbow (Richard de Clare, earl of Pembroke), who is buried here. St. Patrick's Cathedral, founded in 1190, is the national cathedral of the Church of Ireland (Anglican). The major Roman Catholic church in Dublin is the Metropolitan Pro-Cathedral, which dates from the early 19th century.
Phoenix Park, one of the most beautiful in Europe, covers more than 1,700 acres (688 hectares) west of Dublin. Within its grounds are the Hibernian Military School; “Fifteen Acres,” a natural amphitheater used as a race track; and a zoo.