Gascony, a region and former province of southwestern France. It borders the Garonne River on the north and east, the Pyrenees on the south, and the Bay of Biscay on the west. The name is derived from the Vasconsof Spain, Basques who settled here in the late sixth century. Gascony passed to the French dukes of Aquitaine about 1073 and to Henry of Anjou (later Henry II, of England) in 1152 as part of Eleanor of Aquitaine's dowry. France gained permanent control in the 15th century, after the Hundred Years' War. In 1790 the province was divided into administrative departments.