Groningen, Netherlands, the capital of Groningen Province. It is about 90 miles (145 km) northeast of Amsterdam. Canals connect the city to the North Sea. Products include textiles, ceramics, goldwork and silverware, chemicals, and paper. The University of Groningen is here. Groningen dates to at least the 11th century. In 1282 it joined the Hanseatic League. A signatory of the Union of Utrecht (1579), Groningen—with the area it controlled—was one of the seven United Provinces, which later formed the Dutch republic.

Population: 180,848.