Hannover, (English: Hanover), Germany, the capital of Lower Saxony state. It is on the Leine River and the Mittelland Canal, about 150 miles (240 km) west of Berlin. Hannover is a major transportation junction and an important trade and industrial center. Its products include machinery, railway cars, automobiles, tires, chemicals, electrical equipment, and textiles. One of the largest international trade fairs is held here each year.
The city is noted for its Gothic brickwork architecture, its beautiful gardens and wooded parks, and its museums and technical institutes. Many of its medieval buildings were damaged or destroyed during World War II.
Hannover was founded in the 12th century and was a member of the Hanseatic League. During the 1600's it was made the capital of the duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, which was later named the Electorate of Hannover. In 1714 the elector (ruler) of Hannover was crowned King George I of Great Britain, and for nearly 125 years the city was ruled by British monarchs. In 1815 Hannover became the capital of the Kingdom of Hannover, created by the Congress of Vienna. It grew rapidly after 1866, when the kingdom was made a province of Prussia. After World War II the city became the capital of the newly formed state of Lower Saxony.