Lvov, German: Lemberg), Ukraine, a city in the western part of the country. It lies about 275 miles (443 km) west of Kiev, the national capital. It has metallurgical, food, and textile industries, and is a major transportation center. Ivan Franko State University is among its educational institutions. Lvov was founded about 1250 and later became capital of Galicia. The city was ruled by Poland from 1340 until 1772, when it was taken by Austria. It reverted to Polish rule in 1919 and was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1939, becoming part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (which became an independent country in 1991).