Murmansk, Russia, a city on the Kola Gulf, an arm of the Barents Sea. It is a port, an administrative center, and the world's largest city north of the Arctic Circle. Murmansk is about 930 miles (1,500 km) north-northwest of Moscow. The port is ice-free all year and is linked to St. Petersburg by railway. It is also the western terminus of Russia's Arctic sea route. The city has fishing, shipbuilding, sawmilling, and mineral-processing industries. Murmansk was founded in 1915. It was a receiving base for Allied supplies during both World Wars.