Naples, (Italian: Napoli), Italy, the capital of Campania region and of Naples province. The city is on the Bay of Naples, an arm of the Tyrrhenian Sea, about 120 miles (190 km) southeast of Rome. Naples is third largest city in Italy and is the commercial and industrial center for much of the south. It is also a world tourist center. Chief industries are the manufacture of textiles, chemicals, and metals; food processing; and shipbuilding. The city is well served by roads, highways, and railways, and has an international airport. Naples is the leading passenger port in Italy and is one of the major cargo ports.
Naples is a city of historic castles, palaces, and churches. Castel dell' Ovo was built in Roman times. The 13th-century Castel Nuovo was occupied by early French and Spanish rulers of Naples. In the 17th-century Palazzo Reale lived the Spanish Bourbon rulers. San Gennaro is a 13th-century Gothic cathedral. The church of Santa Chiara, in the city's old quarter, dates from the 14th century. Many art treasures are housed in historic sites throughout the city.
The University of Naples, founded in 1224 by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, is the leading educational institution. Others include the Oriental Institute and a conservatory of music. The National Archeological Museum has one of the largest collections of Greco-Roman artifacts in the world. The building was constructed in the 16th century and became the home of the museum in the late 18th century. The opera house, Teatro San Carlo, built in 1737, is one of Italy's most renowned theaters.
A short distance offshore are the resort islands of Capri and Ischia. About 10 miles (16 km) southeast is the destructive volcano Vesuvius; nearby are Pompeii and Herculaneum, which were buried in volcanic ash in 79 A.D.