Newcastle, or Newcastle upon Tyne, England, a city on the Tyne River about nine miles (14 km) from the North Sea. It is the chief port and industrial center of northeastern England. The adjoining area has rich coal deposits, and Newcastle is noted as a coal-exporting port. The phrase "carrying coals to Newcastle," referring to a superfluous act, is a tribute to the importance of the coal industry to the city. Shipbuilding is also a major industry.
Points of interest include the Cathedral of Saint Nicholas (partly from the 15th century), Saint Andrew's Church (12th century), Guildhall (1658), the Regency buildings (early 19th century) on Grey Street, High Level Bridge (1846-49), and Tyne Bridge (1928). The University of Newcastle upon Tyne was founded in 1851.
Newcastle began as a Roman station on Hadrian's Wall. Later, it became known as Monkchester because of monastic buildings there. After the Norman Conquest of 1066 a fort, called New Castle, was built as a defense against the Scots.
Population (district): 259,526.