Novosibirsk, Russia, the largest city in Siberia and one of the largest in the nation. It is in southern Siberia on the Ob River, about 1,650 miles (2,660 km) east of Moscow.
Industry is highly developed and diversified. Among the city's many products are iron and steel and mining, agricultural, and precision machinery. Much of the manufacturing is based on the exchange of goods and raw materials between Novosibirsk and industrial and mining centers in the nearby Kuznetsk Basin. A transportation center, Novosibirsk lies at the junction of the Trans-Siberian and Turkestan-Siberian railways and is served by other rail lines, a river port, and a large airport. A subway opened in 1985.
Novosibirsk is one of Russia's leading research and educational centers. Located here is the Siberian Department of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which has many research institutes and laboratories at nearby Akademgorodok, or Science City. Novosibirsk State University is the city's leading educational institution. Novosibirsk has a symphony orchestra, an opera company, and a ballet company.
Novosibirsk was founded as Novonikolayevsk in 1893 while the Trans-Siberian Railway was being built. By 1925, when the city received its present name, the population was almost 120,000. Phenomenal growth came with succeeding decades as new industries and transportation facilities were established in Siberia.