, Bulgaria, the capital of Plovdiv district. It is on the Maritsa River, 85 miles (137 km) southeast of Sofia. Plovdiv produces machinery, textiles, chemicals, and processed foods. In the fourth century B.C. Philip II of Macedon named it Philippopolis. The city was occupied in turn by Greeks, Turks, and Russians before being ceded to Bulgaria in 1885.

Population: 379,083.