Rostov, or Rostov-on-Don, Russia, a city on the Don River and the administrative center of Rostov Oblast (region). It is about 25 miles (40 km) east of the Don's mouth at the Sea of Azov.

Rostov is a port, a railway center, and a manufacturing city, known especially for the making of machinery and transportation equipment. Rostov State University, founded in 1917, and several technical schools and institutes are here.

Rostov was founded in 1761 as a fortress after the Russians gained control of the region from the Turks. Commercial development came mainly after the opening of the city's port in 1834. Rostov was heavily damaged in World War II, when it was twice held by the Germans, but was later rebuilt.

Population: 1,020,000.