Saint-Étienne, France, the capital of Loire Department, about 30 miles (48 km) southwest of Lyon. It lies in a major coal-producing region of France and is primarily an industrial city, producing iron, steel, firearms, bicycles, and ribbon. The city has a school of mines and a museum, which contains a notable collection of armor.

Saint-Étienne's history follows the development of its industry. Ribbon manufacturing was introduced in the 15th century, and the manufacture of firearms began a century later. The city's greatest development, however, came after the establishment of steelworks here in 1815 and the completion of France's first railway in 1827.

Population: 199,528.