, Austria, a city and the capital of Salzburg province. It lies on the Salzach River near the German border, about 150 miles (240 km) west-southwest of Vienna. Salzburg is primarily a tourist center. Industries include brewing, the printing and binding of books, and the manufacturing of musical instruments. Salt is mined nearby; the city's name means “salt town.”
Salzburg is noted for its annual music festival honoring Mozart, born here in 1756. The city's Mozarteum Orchestra, founded in 1841, specializes in his music. Mozart's birthplace is now a museum. The city's old section contains excellent examples of Renaissance and Baroque architecture. Among them are the Dom (cathedral, 1614–55) and the Residenz (1592–1725), former palace of the prince-archbishops. The Hohensalzburg is a former fortress dating from 1077. The University of Salzburg, founded in 1622, was reopened in 1964 after being closed for more than 150 years.
In ancient times Salzburg was a Roman trading center called Juvavum. The present city grew up around a monastery built here by Saint Rupert late in the seventh century. By the early 800's the town had become the residence of the archbishops of Salzburg, who ruled what is now Salzburg province for nearly 1,000 years. In 1278 the archbishops were made independent princes of the Holy Roman Empire. Salzburg was granted to Austria by the Treaty of Pressburg in 1805, transferred to Bavaria four years later, and returned to Austria in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna.