Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia-Herzegovina. It is in the southeastern part of the country. Sarajevo is the country's chief industrial, commercial, and transportation center. The city has an old Turkish quarter, with many mosques and a bazaar.

Sarajevo was founded in the mid-13th century. It was conquered in 1429 by the Ottoman Turks, who ruled for nearly 450 years. Along with the rest of Bosnia-Herzegovina, the city was occupied by Austria-Hungary in 1878 and annexed in 1908.

The assassination in Sarajevo of the Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand on June 28, 1914, touched off World War I. After the war Sarajevo became part of the newly created Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia). Sarajevo was the site of the 1984 Winter Olympics. In 1992 it became the capital of newly independent Bosnia-Herzegovina. From 1992 to 1995 Sarajevo suffered severe damage during a civil war between Bosnian government forces (led by Bosnian Muslims) and Bosnian Serbs. Throughout the war the city remained under government control but some of the surrounding suburbs came under Serb control. In 1996, in accordance with the treaty ending the war, the Serbs gave control of the suburbs they were holding to the Bosnian government.

Population: 415,631.