Scotland, a political division of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It consists primarily of the northern part of the island of Great Britain and three offshore island groups: the Hebrides and the Orkney and Shetland islands On the south Scotland adjoins England; elsewhere it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and such arms of the Atlantic as the North Sea and Irish Sea. Northern Ireland lies 13 miles (21 km) southwest of the peninsula of Kintyre. The area of Scotland is 30,418 square miles (78,781 km 2). Maximum dimensions on the mainland are about 275 miles (440 km) north-south and 150 miles (240 km) east-west.

Facts in brief about Scotland
Capital: Edinburgh.
Official language: English.
Area: 30,087 mi2 (77,925 km2). Greatest distances—north-south, 274 mi (441 km); east-west, 154 mi (248 km). Coastline—about 2,300 mi (3,700 km).
Elevation: Highest—Ben Nevis, 4,406 ft (1,343 m) above sea level. Lowest—sea level along the coast.
Population: Current estimate—5,127,000; population density, 170 per mi2 (66 per km2); distribution, 86 percent urban, 14 percent rural. 2001 census—5,062,011.
Flag: Scotland's flag has a white X on a blue background. The flag is called St. Andrew's Cross. It has never been officially adopted, but the Scottish people have flown it for hundreds of years.
Chief products: Agriculture—barley, cattle, milk, sheep, wheat. Fishing—cod, haddock, mackerel. Manufacturing—foods and beverages, electronic equipment, chemicals, industrial machinery, metal products, and textiles. Mining—petroleum.