Serbia,a landlocked country on the Balkan Peninsula in southeastern Europe. Serbia borders Hungary to the north. On the east, it borders Romania and Bulgaria, Macedonia to the south, and Albania, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Croatia on the west. The province of Vojvodina lies in the northern part of the country and Kosovo lies in the south. Serbia was part of the state union of Serbia and Montenegro, but the country achieved its independence after Montenegro left the union in 2006.
|Facts in brief about Serbia|
|Principal language: Serbian.|
|Area: 34,116 mi2 (88,361 km2). Greatest distancesnorth-south, 305 mi (491 km); east-west, 210 mi (338 km).|
|Elevation: HighestMount Daravica, 8,714 ft (2,656 m) above sea level. Lowest115 ft (35 m) above sea level on Danube River at eastern border with Romania and Bulgaria.|
|Population: Current estimate9,519,000; density, 279 per mi2 (108 per km2).|
|Chief products: Agriculturecattle, corn, hogs, potatoes, sheep, sugar beets, wheat. Manufacturingautomobiles, cement, iron and steel, plastics, textiles, trucks. Miningcoal, copper, lead, zinc.|
|Money: Basic unitSerbian dinar (except for Kosovo); euro (Kosovo). One hundred paras equal one dinar. One hundred cents equal one euro.|
Serbia is a largely mountainous country. Mount Daravica is Serbias highest point which is 8,714 ft (2,656m) above sea level. The Pannonian Plains lie to the north of Serbia. This region is comparatively flat with a few hilly areas. However, the rest of Serbia is mountainous.
The Danubeone of Europes longest waterwaysenters Serbia from Hungary, forming part of the border between Serbia and Croatia. It then flows southeast across the country to form part of Serbias border with Romania. The Danube River at eastern border with Romania and Bulgaria is 115 ft (35m) above sea level. The Iron Gate Dam on the Danube stands at Iron Gate, a gorge at the border between Serbia and Romania. The power plant of the dam supplies electric power to the two countries.The Morava river which flows northwards through the hills of southern and central Serbia finally flows into the Danube. The Sava River flowing eastward empties itself into the Danube at Belgrade. The Tisa River ends its 1350 km long journey from Ukraine when it meets with the Danube at around 60 km to the northeast of Belgrade. The Begej River (254 km) flows into the Tisa River near Titel. The partially navigable river of Timis (60 km/350 km) flows into the Danube near Pancevo
The Pannonian plains experience extremely cold winters with freezing winds that are known as Kosovo. The summers here are usually dry and hot, with temperatures often rising to about 100F (38C). In Belgrade, on the edge of the Pannonian Plains, the average January temperature is 32F (0C). The average July temperature is 73F (23C). Bitter cold winters exist in the rest of Serbia, with an extensive amount of snowfall. Heavy rains take place early in summer.
Serbia has an economy based mostly on agriculture and industry. Agriculture is one of the key sources of employment in Serbia. The countrys most cultivable farmlands are found in Vojvodina and Sumadija, an area south of Belgrade. Crops usually grown in the Serbian fields are corn, potatoes, sugar beets, and wheat. Cattle, hogs and sheep are also reared. Serbia is a leading frozen fruit exporter and grows about one-third of the worlds raspberries.
Factories in Serbia produce automobiles, cement, iron and steel, plastics, textiles, and trucks. Deposits of coal, copper, lead and zinc are found in Serbia. The metallurgical industry is concentrated in western Serbia. Chemicals, especially petrochemicals, are produced in the area of Belgrade.
A network of highways are constructed in Belgrade, however, the rest of Serbia has fewer roads. There are a few that links the villages, but these are usually unpaved. The railroads link Belgrade to every major city and town in Serbia. Serbias largest airport is in Belgrade. The Belgrade airport handles all the international flights to and from the country. In addition Serbia has two other airportsNis and Pristina.
About 85 percent of the population of Serbia is made up of Serbs. However, about 55 percent of the people of Vojvodina are Serbs, and nearly 20 percent are Hungarians. The province also includes large numbers of Croats, Montenegrins, Romanians, and Slovaks. There are also a number of minority groups which include Albanians, Bosniaks, Roma, Croats, Slovaks, Bulgarians, Romanians, etc. Albanians form a majority in the province of Kosovo.
About half the population of Serbia live in cities. In rural areas, housing generally comprises either brick, stone or wooden constructions with steep roofs. Most city dwellers live in older bricks houses or apartment buildings. The typical suburban housing, however, comprises high-rise apartment buildings made of concrete.
Most Serbs belong to the Serbian Orthodox Church. However, some Serbs are members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Hungarians and Slovaks typically belong to such ethnic churches as the Hungarian Evangelical Lutheran Church or the Slovak Evangelical Christian Church. Islam is followed by most Albanians and Bosniaks in Kosovo.
A president heads the government of Serbia. Voters elect the president for a four-year term. The prime minister, appointed by the president, oversees day-to-day operations of the government. A one-house National Assembly is Serbia's legislative body. Its 250 members are elected by the people for four-year terms. All citizens - 18 years of age and older - are eligible to vote in Serbia.