Sevastopol (sometimes also Sebastopol), Ukraine, a city on the Black Sea near the tip of the Crimean peninsula. It is a major naval base and has shipyards, food-processing plants, and woodworking factories. Sevastopol is the southern terminus of the Moscow-Crimea railway. The mild climate makes Sevastopol a popular resort. A history museum, an anthropology museum, and a marine biology station of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences are here.
Sevastopol was founded in 1783 as a fortified town and port, following Russia's annexation of the Crimea. It served as a bastion against the Turks and its founding marked the end of Russia's struggle to gain access to the Black Sea. By the early 1800's Sevastopol was the principal base for the Black Sea fleet. During the Crimean War (1853–56) the city was besieged by English, French, Turkish, and Sardinian troops for 11 months before surrendering. The treaty ending the war closed the Black Sea to warships, and Sevastopol declined. After the ban was lifted in 18 71, the city soon regained its importance. During World War II Sevastopol was virtually destroyed during a German siege that lasted 239 days (November, 1941-June, 1942). It was rebuilt after the war.