Sheffield, England, a city in South Yorkshire. It lies on the Don River about 140 miles (225 km) northwest of London. Sheffield is a major industrial center, noted for the production of high-quality steels and cutlery. Heavy steel products, tools, and silverware are also manufactured.
Prominent buildings in Sheffield include Cutlers' Hall, completed in 1832, and the Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul, which dates in part from the 1300's. Castle Hill is the site of the castle where Mary, Queen of Scots, was held prisoner, 1569–84. Housed in Graves Art Gallery is one of the foremost collections of paintings in northern England. The University of Sheffield, founded in 1905, specializes in metallurgy, engineering, and related sciences.
Sheffield was well known for cutlery as early as the 14th century. The invention here of Sheffield plate (silver fused on a copper base) and crucible steel in the 1740's brought rapid industrial growth to the city. It became a major steel center after Henry Bessemer put his steelmaking process into operation here in 1858. The first stainless steel was made on an experimental basis in Sheffield in 1913.
Population (district): 513,232