Slovenia, a country on the Balkan Peninsula, in southeastern Europe. Slovenia is bordered by Austria, Hungary, Croatia, and Italy. From 1946 to 1992 Slovenia was a constituent republic of Yugoslavia. In 1992 Slovenia became independent. The total area is 7,819 square miles (20,251 km2). Slovenia is a mountainous country. The Karawanken and the Julian Alps in the north and west gradually give way to wooded hills in the south and plains in the east. Agriculture, manufacturing, and tourism are the mainstays of the economy. Most of the people speak Slovenian, a Slavic language. Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion In 1991 Slovenia's population was 1,962,606 Ljubljana, with 286,681 inhabitants, is the capital and largest city. Slovenia has a parliamentary form of government with an elected president.
The Slovenes, a Slavic people, settled in Carinthia, at the head of the Adriatic Sea, in the sixth century. They soon came under attack from the Avars, Asian nomads who had settled in Hungary. After Charlemagne, king of the Franks, defeated the Avars in the late eighth century, he made Slovenia a part of Germany. Eventually, the Hapsburgs of Austria gained control of it. After World War I Slovenia joined other South Slavs in forming the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, later renamed Yugoslavia.
Shortly after World War II, the Slovenian government, like the federal Yugoslav government, came under Communist control. In 1990 Slovenia held its first multiparty elections in more than 50 years, which resulted in the fall of the republic's Communist government. The new government sought to negotiate greater independence from the federal government, which was still controlled by Communists. Negotiations broke down, and in 1991 Slovenia declared independence. The federal army invaded Slovenia but was unable to defeat Slovenian forces and a ceasefire was signed. Slovenia's independence was recognized in 1992. In 2004, Slovenia became a member both of the European Union and of NATO.
|Facts in brief about Slovenia|
|Official language: Slovenian.|
|Official name: Republika Slovenija (Republic of Slovenia).|
|Area: 7,827 mi2 (20,273 km2). Greatest distances—north-south, 100 mi (160 km); east-west, 155 mi (250 km).|
|Elevation: Highest—Mount Triglav, 9,393 ft (2,863 m) above sea level. Lowest—sea level along the coast.|
|Population: Current estimate—2,001,000; density, 256 per mi2 (99 per km2); distribution, 51 percent urban, 49 percent rural. 2002 census—1,964,036.|
|Chief products: Agriculture—apples, cattle, cherries, corn, hogs, pears, plums, potatoes, sheep, sugar beets, wheat. Manufacturing—automobiles, chemicals, metal goods, textiles. Mining—coal, lead, mercury.|
|Flag: Slovenia's flag has three horizontal stripes of white, blue, and red (top to bottom). The national shield is on the white and blue stripes in the upper-left corner.|
|National anthem: "Zdravljica" ("The Toast").|
|Money: Basic unit—euro. One hundred cents equal one euro. The tolar was taken out of circulation in 2007.|