Stuttgart, Germany, the capital of Baden-Württemberg state. It lies on the Neckar River near the Black Forest. Stuttgart is the hub of a major commercial and industrial area, especially noted for the production of Mercedes-Benz and Porsche automobiles. Other leading industries include printing and publishing, metalworking, and the manufacturing of electrical goods and precision instruments. Stuttgart is a major rail hub and has a busy river port.
Stuttgart has been largely rebuilt since World War II, when Allied bombing destroyed much of the city. Historic buildings are concentrated around Schloss and Schiller squares—the old city center—and include the 16th-century Old Palace, the Collegiate Church of the Holy Cross (mainly 15th century), and the New Palace, begun in 1786. Among the prominent postwar structures are the Liederhalle (a complex of concert halls) and a 692-foot (211-m) television tower, with a restaurant and an observatory. Cultural attractions include two symphony orchestras, a chamber orchestra, a ballet company, an opera company, and several museums. The University of Stuttgart is the main educational institution.
Stuttgart was chartered in the 13th century when it became a residence of Count Ulrich I of the Württemberg family. After 1500 it flourished as capital of the duchy of Württemberg. Development slowed during the Thirty Years' War (1618–48), and further decline followed the moving of the capital to Ludwigsburg in 1677. Recovery came after Stuttgart was again made the ruling seat in 1733. Stuttgart became the capital of Baden-Württemberg when the state was created in 1951.