Turin, (Italian: Torino), Italy, the capital of Piedmont region. It lies near the Alps on the Po River, about 75 miles (120 km) southwest of Milan. Metropolitan Turin is a major industrial area, Italy's leading producer of automobiles. Other products include textiles, clothing, processed foods, and leather goods.
Turin has wide boulevards, many parks and squares, and notable 17th- and 18th-century buildings. Several of these buildings, such as the Royal Palace, Madama Palace, and Carignano Palace, were residences of the dukes of Savoy. Among noted museums are the Egyptian Museum, the Museum of Antiquities, and the Sabauda Gallery, which displays works of Flemish, Dutch, and Italian masters. In the Chapel of the Holy Shroud, in St. John's Cathedral, is the cloth that is said to have wrapped Christ's body. .) The University of Turin was founded in 1404. The International Motor Show is a major exhibition held annually in Turin.
In ancient times Turin was the center of the Taurini tribe. Later it was a Roman military colony called Augusta Taurinorum. After the fall of Rome in the fifth century, it was dominated by Lombards and Franks and later was the seat of a small feudal state. About 1280 Turin came under control of the House of Savoy, which made it the chief city of its Italian possessions.
The French occupied Turin from 1536 to 1562 and again from 1640 to 1706. In 1720 it was made the capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia and, except for the years of Napoleonic occupation (1800 to 1814), remained so until the unification of Italy in 1861. Turin was the home of nationalist leader Count Camillo Cavour and was a major center of the risorgimento (unification movement). From 1861 to 1865 it was the capital of the Kingdom of Italy.