Vienna was originally a Celtic settlement and became a Roman frontier post, called Vindobona, during the first century A.D. With the decline of Roman power, Vindobona was destroyed by the Huns in the fifth century A.D. The town later came under the control of various other invaders, including the Magyars, who took it in 907. Peace and prosperity came with the rule of the Babenberg family (976-1246). During this period commerce with the East was strengthened by the Crusades, the town was granted its first charter, and it was made the capital of the duchy of Austria.

Vienna became the seat of the House of Hapsburg after Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph I seized the duchy of Austria in 1276. The Hungarians captured Vienna in 1485 and made it their capital, but were driven out five years later. The city repelled the Turks in 1529 and again in 1683. It was occupied by Napoleon during the early 1800's. As the Hapsburg capital of the Austrian Empire, and later of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Vienna became one of the world's centers of culture.

After World War I, Vienna became the capital of the new Republic of Austria, remaining so until 1938, when Austria was absorbed by Nazi Germany. Following World War II the city was jointly occupied by France, the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and the United States. The occupation ended in 1955.

Population: 1,539,848.