Voronezh, Russia, a city on the Voronezh River, near its junction with the Don, about 290 miles (470 km) south-southeast of Moscow. Voronezh is an important commercial, industrial, and railway center. Its industries produce synthetic rubber, tires, chemicals, processed foods, electrical appliances, and heavy machinery. Voronezh has been largely rebuilt since World War II, and it is essentially a modern city. Among the few remaining historic structures are St. Nicholas Church and the Arsenal, both dating from the 18th century. Several institutes of higher learning, including a university, are here.
Voronezh was founded in 1586 as a frontier outpost to protect Moscow against invasions by the Crimean Tatars. Rapid growth began in the early 19th century, when the city became a prominent trading center. Voronezh was heavily damaged during World War II.