Cassino, Monte, a mountain in the foothills of the Apennines of Italy, near the town of Cassino, 73 miles (117 km) southeast of Rome. It is the site of a noted monastery, the Abbey of Monte Cassino, which was founded in 529 by Saint Benedict. It was a center of learning in the Middle Ages, and contains many valuable manuscripts and paintings preserved by the monks.
During the Italian campaign in World War II, the Germans blocked the Allied advance on Rome by occupying the town of Cassino. In February, 1944, Allied air raids shattered the town and the monastery, which the Allies thought the Germans were using as a fortress. German troops then occupied the monastery's ruins, which became a strong point in the German defenses.