Chapultepec, the principal park of Mexico City. Established in 1592, it is one of the oldest parks in North America. It covers 2,100 acres (850 hectares) and contains gardens, fountains, small lakes, and a zoo. The name means Grasshopper Hill in Nahuatl, the Aztec language. Also in the park are the National Museums of Anthropology and Natural History, the Museum of Modern Art, and Los Pinos (The Pines), residence of Mexico's president.
Historic Chapultepec Castle, now a museum, stands atop a rocky hill in the park's southeastern corner. Built between 1783 and 1840, it served successively as a military school, the palace of Emperor Maximilian, and the home of Mexico's presidents. The Battle of Chapultepec, the last major battle of the Mexican War, was fought here on September 12–13, 1847. General Winfield Scott captured the outer defenses on September 8. Four days later he launched an attack on the fortified castle. It fell on September 13, giving the Americans possession of Mexico City.