Mexico, (Spanish: México ), or United Mexican States, a country in North America. It consists of 31 states and a federal district. The country extends southward from the United States to Guatemala and Belize in Central America. Mexico is a member of the NAFTA, a regional trading bloc that includes Canada and the United States,

The long western coast borders on the Pacific Ocean, including the Gulfs of California and Tehuantepec; the eastern coast fronts on the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, including the Bay of Campeche. In shape, Mexico roughly resembles a cornucopia (horn of plenty), with the broad mouth of the horn in the north. It tapers toward the southeast, narrowing in width to about 125 miles (200 km) at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. At each end of the cornucopia lies a great peninsula—Lower California in the northwest and Yucatan in the southeast.

Ruins of massive pyramids and other Indian structures plus scores of Spanish colonial churches and government buildings reflect Mexico's long history. Evidenced nearly everywhere is the strong imprint of Spanish culture—the result of some 300 years of colonial rule. A modern way of life is apparent in the major cities, especially Mexico City, one of the world's most populous and rapidly growing metropolises. However, life in towns and villages, particularly remote Indian villages, has remained virtually unchanged for centuries.

Mexico in brief
General information
Capital: Mexico City.
Official language: Spanish. But about 7 percent of Mexicans use Nahuatl, Maya, Zapotec, or some other American Indian language.
Official name: Estados Unidos Mexicanos (United Mexican States).
National anthem: "Himno Nacional de Mexico" ("National Anthem of Mexico").
Largest cities: Mexico City (8,591,309); Guadalajara (1,647,720); Ecatepec (1,620,303); Puebla (1,346,176); Netzahualcoyotl (1,224,924).
National flag: Mexico's flag, adopted in 1821, has three vertical stripes, green, white, and red (left to right). The country's coat of arms is in the middle white stripe. The green stripe stands for independence, white for religion, and red for union. The coat of arms represents the legend of Aztec Indians built their capital Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City) where they saw an eagle perched on a cactus devouring a snake.
Coat of arms: A legend says the Aztec Indians built their capital Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City) where they saw an eagle perched on a cactus and devouring a snake.
Land and climate
Land: Mexico lies in North America. It is bordered by the United States on the north and by Guatemala and Belize on the southeast. The Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea lie to the east; the Pacific Ocean to the west and south. A chain of high volcanic mountains extends east-west across southern Mexico, just south of Mexico City. Lower mountain chains extend northwestward from each end of the volcanic chain, forming a great U-shape of mountains. Much of north-central Mexico is a high plateau rimmed by these mountain ranges. The Pacific Coast in the far south is rugged and has densely forested areas. The long peninsula of Baja California in the northwest is mostly desert with some mountains. The Yucatán Peninsula in the southeast is flat and forested. Mexico's chief rivers are the Rio Grande (at the U.S. border) and the Balsas.
Area: 756,066 mi2 (1,958,201 km2). Greatest distances—north-south, 1,250 mi (2,012 km); east-west, 1,900 mi (3,060 km). Coastline—6,320 mi (10,170 km).
Elevation: Highest—Pico de Orizaba (also called Citlaltepetl), 18,410 ft (5,610 m). Lowest—near Mexicali, 33 ft (10 m) below sea level.
Climate: Northwest and north-central Mexico are mostly desert, with hot summers and cool to mild winters. The northeast coast has moderate rainfall with mild winters and warm summers. Central Mexico is dry, with temperatures varying according to altitude. High locations, such as Mexico City, have mild temperatures the year around. Low-altitude locations are warmer. Southern Mexico, including Yucatán, is warm and moist the year around.
Government
Form of government: Federal republic.
Chief executive: President (elected to 6-year term).
Legislature: Congress of two houses—128-member Senate and 500-member Chamber of Deputies.
Judiciary: Highest court is the Supreme Court of Justice.
Political subdivisions: 31 states, 1 federal district.
People
Population: Current estimate—110,915,000. 2000 census—97,483,412.
Population density: 147 per mi2 (57 per km2).
Distribution: 76 percent urban, 24 percent rural.
Major ethnic/national groups: Almost entirely Mexican. Most Mexicans are of mixed American Indian and Spanish ancestry; some are entirely Indian or entirely of European descent; a few have partly black or East Asian ancestry.
Major religions: More than 85 percent Roman Catholic; some Protestants, Jews, and American Indian religions.
Economy
Chief products: Agriculture—avocados, bananas, barley, beans, coffee, corn, cotton, lemons, mangoes, oranges, potatoes, sorghum, sugar cane, tomatoes, wheat. Manufacturing—chemicals, iron and steel, motor vehicles, processed foods. Mining—copper, gold, lead, natural gas, petroleum, salt, silver, sulfur, zinc.
Money: Basic unit—Mexican peso. One hundred centavos equal one peso.
Foreign trade: Major exports—electrical machinery, motor vehicles, telecommunications equipment. Major imports—electric and electronic equipment, industrial machinery, motor vehicles. Major trading partners—China, Germany, Japan, United States.